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What is the difference between International Express and International Private Line?

What is International Express?


Broadly speaking, international express delivery refers to the express delivery and logistics business between two or more countries (or regions). Countries and countries (or regions) to pass letters, business documents and goods delivery business, that is, through the border crossing between countries and customs inspection of express delivery mode of release.

Everyone said the international courier, generally refers to the international four major express delivery - DHL (Sinotrans DHL), FedEx (U.S. FedEx), UPS (United States United Parcel) and TNT (Tian Tian Express)

    1, DHL, the world's largest international freight forwarding company, there is no one!

        Price: <20KG small packages, especially 5.5KG small packages below the         United States have price advantages

        Time Limit: If the normal time limit, it can be delivered to the world in 2-5 working days, Europe generally 3 working days, Southeast Asia generally 2 working days.

        Areas of strength: Advantageous in Europe, Southeast Asia and North         America.

    2. UPS

        Price: 100KG or more price is advantageous

        Timeliness: 2-4 working days for worldwide delivery if normal timeliness, and about 48 hours for delivery to the US.

        Advantageous regions: The strong regions are the United States, Canada, etc., which have the advantages of the best cost performance, fixed-point and regular tracking, and detailed inquiry records.

    3. FedEx

        Price: 21KG-99KG price is advantageous, especially in Southeast Asia large goods have advantages

        Timeliness: 2-4 working days to deliver worldwide if normal timeliness.

        Areas of strength: strong in Southeast Asia, more competitive prices in the Americas and Europe, more expensive elsewhere.

    4. TNT (acquired by Fedex)

        Price: 21KG-99KG price advantage, especially in Western European countries

        Timeliness: 3-6 business days for worldwide delivery.

        Region of strength: Western European States

What is an International Private Line?

It refers to the line to a specific country, there are air transport, sea transport, railway transport and other modes of transportation. It is the transportation service of domestic strong freight forwarding company independently developed and built a special route from domestic export to the target country.

The international special line will often be "double clear tax" in the form of the public's field of vision, which will be very different from the international courier, compared to the international courier is not responsible for the shortcomings of customs clearance and payment of taxes, it is the most important reason for many people to choose the international special line.

    1、Double clearing and tax inclusive

"Double Clearance" refers to the customs clearance in the exporting country (customs declaration) and the customs clearance in the destination country. Double Clearance also guarantees the normal export of the customs of the sending country and the customs clearance in the destination country. The "tax package" refers to the package of customs duty and other taxes in the destination country when clearing customs.

To put it plainly, you hand over the goods to the forwarding company, the forwarding company is responsible for arranging the trailer, customs clearance, with the ship/aircraft, the ship/aircraft to the destination port after the exchange of documents, customs clearance is the forwarding company to do, including the destination country of the delivery to the door.

    2、What are the benefits of the Double Clearance Duty Free Line?

        Save money:

        Freight forwarding is a collection mode of export, long-term operation will be and shipping companies, logistics companies to get a very cheap tariffs.

        Save your heart:

        This "one-stop" service is actually not required to provide any documents, no VAT and EORI number, and even customs declaration documents are handled by the freight forwarder, the amount of customs declaration by the freight forwarder to fill in the destination country tax points by the freight forwarder on behalf of the payment of the products into the warehouse can be.

        Sensitive goods available

    3. Disadvantages of double clearing package tax:

‍     For foreign trade companies:

        1、Real buyers and sellers can't claim import/export tax refunds

        2、If the buyer receives the goods and asks for import and export clearance information, there is no, so be sure to talk to foreign buyers in advance before using the service.

How much does the FOB price know? What should I do if the goods are delivered without a bill of lading?

(FOB) FOB price,Also known as "free on board price", the English abbreviation is FOB, which is one of the commonly used trade terms in international trade. It refers to the sales price at which the transportation and insurance costs from the port of departure to the destination are borne by the buyer and not included in the settlement price.


For transactions conducted on an FOB basis, the buyer is responsible for dispatching a ship to pick up the goods, and the seller shall load the goods on the vessel designated by the buyer at the port of shipment specified in the contract and within the specified time limit, and notify the buyer in time. The risk is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods are loaded on board the named vessel at the port of shipment.

In this term, the risk we need to bear is to deliver the goods to the designated place of the customer's freight forwarder, but we must pay attention to this term-the point is the cost issue.

The cost components are: Domestic freight + local miscellaneous charges at the port, generally we tend to omit the local miscellaneous charges at the port.

Since the freight forwarder designated by the customer will charge a higher fee than our own freight forwarder, we must pay special attention when quoting the price to the customer, or this will be the point where our profit will decrease.

When we quote FOB prices to customers, the price we quote to customers consists of: domestic freight + local port miscellaneous charges + cost price of goods. We must not record FOB as EXW to calculate the cost, otherwise part of the cost will be lost, and maybe that part of the cost is just our own profit.

Then we know that there is an FOB price, so there must be a CIF price. For a long time, people have been accustomed to calling the FOB price condition in international trade as the FOB price, so that the price term includes freight and insurance. CIF is said to be CIF.

But the real CIF price is not CIF, but DES. DES refers to the delivery on board at the port of destination. The seller must be responsible for transporting the goods to the ship at the port of destination, and is responsible for all costs and risks before the goods arrive at the port. The goods are handed over to the buyer on board, but the seller will complete the delivery without going through the import customs clearance procedures. .

CIF is not CIF because the risk transfer limit of CIF is also the side of the ship rather than the port of destination. Because the CIF term belongs to formal delivery, that is, after delivery on the ship's side at the port of shipment, the risk is transferred to the consignee, and the delivery does not need to be delivered to the customer's designated port to complete the delivery.

For example, in a contract concluded using the CIF price term, if the cargo-carrying ship runs aground and sinks before leaving the port of shipment, the buyer cannot submit a claim to the seller, because the risk after passing the ship's rail has been transferred to the buyer, and the buyer can only rely on The insurance contract makes a claim to the insurance company, which shows that the seller is not responsible for the risk to the port of destination. So let's not mistake CIF for CIF.

Regarding the FOB price, we should pay special attention to the miscellaneous charges at the port of departure. Since we will not know the information of the customer's designated freight forwarder until we have discussed all the costs with the customer, then we will miss the time to know the customer's designated freight forwarder to charge. Standard, then for us the difference between the cost and our budget will cause us a certain loss.

Therefore, after we have negotiated the trade terms with the customer, we have to ask the customer to specify the freight forwarding information to check with them how much the local port miscellaneous charges for this batch of shipments are, so as to achieve the most accurate quotation, and do not let the profit of our budget be overwhelmed. So gone.

How does delivery without a bill of lading come about?

FOB means that the buyer specifies the carrier (usually a foreign freight forwarder and its agent in China), and the buyer controls the transportation; the freight forwarder often obeys the buyer, or is even directly controlled by the buyer; this situation usually occurs when the goods are delivered without a bill of lading Down!

This type of trade usually produces two sets of bills of lading: the shipowner's bill and the freight forwarding bill. The freight forwarder uses itself (or its agent) as the shipper to book space with the shipping company and obtain the ship owner's bill; what the domestic exporter gets is the bill of lading issued by the freight forwarder (or even the bill of lading), and the consignor and consignee usually show the are sellers and buyers.

After the freight forwarder obtains the ship owner's bill from the shipping company, it can directly send it to the foreign agent, and the foreign freight forwarder can pick up the goods from the shipping company after receiving the ship owner's bill. As for whether the foreign freight forwarder needs to take back the freight bill when it delivers the goods to the actual consignee, this is another matter. Once the foreign freight forwarder does not require the consignee to return the original bill of lading when delivering the goods to the consignee, the bill of lading in the hands of the consignor can be regarded as waste paper in a sense.

Which delivery method is safer?

Facts have proved that in the export business, as the seller, according to the specific circumstances of the transaction, it is very necessary to carefully select the appropriate trade terms to prevent the risk of foreign exchange collection and improve economic benefits. Let's talk about several issues that should be paid attention to when choosing trade terms.

Generally speaking, it is more beneficial to use CIF or CFR terms in export business than to use FOB. Because, under CIF conditions, the seller is the party to the three contracts (sales contract, transportation contract and insurance contract) involved in the international sale of goods, and he can make overall arrangements for stock preparation, shipment, insurance and other matters according to the situation to ensure the operation process. interconnection on top. In addition, it is conducive to the development of the country's shipping industry and insurance industry, increasing the income from trade in services. Of course, this is not absolute. You should first consider whether it is difficult to arrange transportation yourself according to the specific conditions of the traded commodities, and whether it is economically cost-effective and other factors.

The risk of FOB is also that if the designated freight forwarder cannot directly book the space, but books the space through other professional airline freight forwarders, then there is no real control over the property rights in the transportation, resulting in that if there is a problem in transportation, it cannot be solved in time.

The seller may say that we are not responsible for the transportation of this FOB shipment, and it has nothing to do with us. I don't need to worry about it. It is precisely this point of view that has some problems, because when the cargo transportation route is a multiple-choice question, when the transportation time is prolonged, what increases is the increase in the capital circulation cycle of the manufacturer. For example, if you go to South America, some ships will take about 60 days, and some ships will only take half the time (I won’t talk about the specific shipping company, remember to ask the voyage when the manufacturer books the space, this is very important), this will delay the transfer to The time the customer received the payment. In order to reduce the transportation cost, the consignee sometimes chooses to ship with a longer voyage. Such behavior is understandable. Of course, some manufacturers are willing to ship with a longer voyage because of warehousing, which can reduce storage costs. If the value of the goods is small, then nothing can be seen. If the value of the goods is large, the customer’s slow payment will lead to the uncertainty of the exchange rate. I think the manufacturers have a deep understanding. The current exchange rate changes every day. We must pay attention to the problem of loss.

If it is necessary to use FOB conditions to complete the transaction


1. The time for the buyer to send the ship to the port for loading should be clearly stipulated in the contract, so as to avoid the delay in the arrival of the ship after the seller has prepared the goods, which will delay the loading date.

2. Increase the deposit ratio to reduce the probability of customer rebellion. When the shipping method can't beat the customer, you must keep the bottom line in the payment method, and you would rather earn less or not do business, and you can't take the risk of losing money.

3. In the trade contract, the buyer and the seller agree on the freight forwarding company, which is not necessarily limited to a certain one. If the carrier and the bill of lading have not been filed with the Ministry of Communications of China, then you have to be careful. (The recorded bill of lading and the carrier need to pay a deposit, which makes the bill of lading relatively safe.) If the buyer insists on being paranoid about his own opinion, the seller must consider the risk. Accept well-known shipping companies and insist on using the shipping company's bill of lading, and try to avoid using the designated overseas freight forwarder and the bill of lading issued by it. At the same time, the owner of the goods should ask the freight forwarder in my country to issue a letter of guarantee when handling the formalities of the port of shipment on behalf of the overseas freight forwarder, promising that the goods arranged by the designated overseas freight forwarder must be delivered with the original bill of lading circulated by the bank under the letter of credit after arriving at the port of destination, otherwise they will be charged Liability for compensation for delivery of goods without a bill of lading, only in this way, once the goods are delivered without a bill of lading, can there be a basis for claiming.

4. In the case of FOB export, it must be clearly stated in the contract that the consignor entrusts the freight forwarder or NVOCC to book space with the shipping company, and the right to book space cannot be handed over to the buyer, because of the obligation of space booking and delivery is uniform. The shipper (shipper) column in the bill of lading must fill in the name of the consignor (seller). The consignor has the right to entrust the booking space, and also has the right to control the goods. If the buyer's credit is good and there is a requirement to resell the goods in transit, it is also acceptable to use the buyer as the shipper. If you don't know the credit of the buyer, it is better to use the seller as the shipper for the sake of safety.

5. It is also advisable to use the instruction bill of lading issued by the consignee, so that the bank can tightly control the rights of the goods and prevent the risk of releasing the goods without a bill of lading.

6. Invest in China Credit Insurance Corporation to hedge risks. Before investing, learn about the countries and regions they are not insured for and blacklist customers, and learn more about the cases of being rejected by CITIC Insurance to avoid worsening the situation.

—What should the seller do in the event of delivery without a bill of lading?

Suggestions given on the Internet include finding an embassy, calling an international language department, adding various blacklists, and finding a collection company, not to mention whether the client is a professional fraud, whether there are several companies in the Three Caves of the Rabbit, whether there is a gangster background, yes Whether you care about these threats or not, just going overseas to follow up with Zhang Luo will inevitably waste people, money, and exhaustion, and you don't need to do the next business.

Property rights are the most important thing in foreign trade. Don't bury your head in bargaining all day and fall into the trap set by others. Again, it is better to prevent problems before they happen than to remedy after the event.

Comparison of Incoterms in "General Rules 2000"

English and abbreviationsChinese full nameTrading locationsRisk divisionExport declarationImport declarationApplicable mode of transportationPrice marked

Ex Works


ex factoryseller premisesAfter the buyer takes over the goodsbuyerbuyerVarious modes of transportationDesignated place

Free Carrier


free carrierExport domestic mainland and port stipulated in the contractAfter the carrier takes over the cargoThe sellerbuyerdittoditto

Free Alongside Ship


FOBport of shipmentAfter the cargo is delivered to the side of the shipThe sellerbuyersea transport, inland water transportShipping port name

Free on Board


FOBport of shipment on boardcargo loaded on boardThe sellerbuyerdittoditto

Cost & Freight


cost plus freightdittodittoThe sellerbuyerdittoDestination port name

Cost Insurance and Freight


cost plus insurance plus freightdittodittoThe sellerbuyerdittoditto

Carriage Paid To


freight paid toExport domestic ports stipulated in the contractAfter the carrier takes over the cargoThe sellerbuyerVarious modes of transportationdestination name

Carriage & Insurance Paid To


Freight, insurance paid todittodittoThe sellerbuyerdittoditto

Delivered at Frontier


border deliveryDesignated place on the border between the two countriesAfter the buyer takes over the goodsThe sellerbuyerMostly used for land transportationborder designation point

Delivered ex Ship


FOBport of destinationAfter the buyer receives the goods on boardThe sellerbuyerMultimodal transport of sea transport, inland water transport and FOB at the port of destinationDestination port name

Delivered ex Quay


Delivery at port of destinationport of destinationAfter the buyer receives the goods at the port of destinationThe sellerbuyerdittoditto

Delivered Duty Unpaid


DEPDesignated place of importing countryAfter the buyer receives the goods at the designated placeThe sellerbuyerany mode of transportdestination name
Delivered Duty Paid


DEPdittodittoThe sellerThe sellerdittoditto

Freight operation common sense

Cargo consignment: With the company's valid business license, personal ID card or other valid documents, fill in the consignment form, and go through the consignment procedures with the carrier.

Packaging: The packaging of the goods should meet the requirements of international transportation, and must not be packed in straw bags or tied with straw ropes. Corresponding markings should be affixed on the outer packaging of each piece of LCL so that the carrier can distinguish the goods.

Prohibited goods: Prohibited or restricted items, dangerous goods, valuables, cash and securities must not be included in the package of the goods. For the goods that cannot be transported together according to the nature of the goods or the transportation conditions, the consignment note should be filled out separately.

The formula for calculating the volume and weight of air freight is: length X width X height (CM)/6000. After conversion, it is generally compared with 1 cubic meter and 167 kilograms. If the ratio is less than 167 kilograms, it is light cargo, and the volume weight of the larger charged weight is taken;

Express volume weight calculation formula: length X width X height (CM)/5000, namely 1CBM=200KGS.

Minimum freight: Different carriers have different starting weights, air freight is generally 45KG or 100KG; sea freight is generally 1 cubic meter.

Documents required for consignment of international goods: Chinese and English packing list, invoice, contract, customs declaration form, customs declaration power of attorney, consignment note.

International cargo transportation route: factory shipment → delivery to designated warehouse → cargo declaration → customs clearance of exporting country → cargo departure → transit/direct arrival → port of destination → cargo customs clearance → customs clearance of importing country → payment of taxes (if any) → delivery → delivery goods

International cargo transportation insurance


  International cargo transportation insurance is an insurance that uses various goods in the process of foreign trade cargo transportation as the subject of insurance.


  Main species

  According to the type of means of transport, there are mainly the following types of insurance:

  1) Marine cargo transportation insurance

  2) Land cargo transportation insurance

  3) Air cargo transportation insurance

  4) Parcel insurance


  There are three basic types of transportation insurance: Ping An Insurance, WPA and All Risks.


  In transportation practice, the insured generally pays all risks for the goods. For special goods or valuables, in addition to any one of the above-mentioned basic insurances, additional insurance can be added after negotiation with the insurance company.


  All risks: In addition to the above-mentioned "safety insurance" and "water damage insurance", the insurance company is responsible for the shortage, shortage, theft, leakage, collision of the insured goods caused by external reasons during transportation. Damage, broken, hook damage, rain, rust, damp, mildew, odor, contamination and other total or partial loss, also responsible for compensation.



  1. Losses caused by intentional acts or negligence of the insured.

  2. The consignor is responsible for the loss caused by the natural consumption of the insured goods.

  3. Losses caused by war, workers' strike or delay in transportation.


  The starting and ending period of the insurance liability is "warehouse to warehouse", that is, from the time when the insured goods leave the warehouse or storage place at the place of departure specified in the policy, until the goods arrive at the last warehouse or warehouse of the consignee at the destination specified in the policy. storage premises.


  Premium Calculation

  The insurance amount is based on the CIF price of the goods. If you want to add insurance, you can add 10%.

  Formula: Insurance premium = CIF price X (1+10%) X insurance premium rate

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